The UN General Assembly has begun in the midst of a global context marked by fragmentation, division and threats. Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the jihadist threat in the Sahel, the food crisis on the African continent and the economic recession are just some examples of the diplomatic challenges that the leaders of all nations will debate and have to face during these meetings.
Several international leaders have already spoken out at the Assembly. From Morocco, the head of the Moroccan government, Aziz Akhannouch, pointed out that the Alawi kingdom has managed to make "great progress" in the process of improving the country's infrastructure, as well as the education system, with the aim of achieving "a true educational renaissance in line with the ambitions of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the strategic objectives of the new development model".
According to Akhannouch, these reforms in the education system, planned to take place between 2022 and 2026, are based on national consultations that would have been carried out through a participatory methodology that would favour the broad education sector including "teachers, students and their families".
He explained that the roadmap is structured around three main axes: that students achieve basic skills, improve the performance of teachers and optimise the level of schools through the creation of "modern and open" institutions.
Alongside this, the plan aims to achieve three main objectives by 2026, namely to reduce the drop-out rate by one third, to increase the number of students achieving basic skills by 70% and to double the number of students benefiting from assessment techniques based on observation of students' activities, as well as on the work and exercises that students carry out in class.
Meanwhile, French President Emmanuel Macron has condemned Russia for its invasion of Ukraine. For Macron, Russia's offensives constitute a "violation of the United Nations Charter and global stability". He has also taken a strong stance against Russia's policies, calling them "imperialist" and "colonialist".
Macron has therefore issued a series of warnings to those countries that have decided not to take a position in the conflict, stating that, in the future, "anyone could be the one to suffer a war". He also tried to convince these countries that "Russia has paved the way for other wars on every continent".
Despite this, Macron has shown himself open to "continuing dialogue with Moscow to seek peace" as long as these are dialogues in which the sovereignty and will of Ukraine is respected, and argued that these could not be carried out with the announcement of new referendums in the pro-Russian regions.
Thus, in his defence of preserving world peace, Macron has shown himself to be opposed to global divisions that "can only lead to a new Cold War", something that would not be beneficial for tackling common challenges such as poverty, climate change or famine.
He also argued in favour of Security Council reforms, among them the inclusion of more nations as permanent members of the Security Council or the elimination of the right of veto for those who commit crimes against humanity or war crimes.
Like Macron and other international leaders, German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has criticised the Russian invasion and declared that Putin will only give up his "imperialist ambitions" if he recognises that he cannot win this war.
Alongside this, he declared that "the return of imperialism, with Putin's war against Ukraine, is not only a disaster for Europe, but for the world peace order". He therefore argues that it is better to cooperate so that "the multipolar world of the 21st century remains a multilateral world".
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan continues to advocate Turkey's role as an international mediator. During his speech he stressed the need for the conflict in Ukraine to be brought to an end through "diplomacy", otherwise "there will be no winner".
In addition, Erdogan stressed how Turkey has tried to study all possible ways to reach a peace agreement and criticised organisations such as the United Nations Security Council, which he called for "more involvement" and changes, given that, at present, with the development of the conflict in Ukraine, Russia's permanent membership means that many peace resolutions cannot be carried out.
The president of Chile, Gabriel Boric, began his first participation in the UN General Assembly by giving an extensive review of the political situation in Chile over the last few years.
In this line, Boric has assumed the defeat of the new constitutional project, although he continues to defend the search for an alternative in which a large majority of Chileans agree.
In addition, the Chilean president has assured that the rejection does not imply "a defeat" for his government and assures that the people of Chile "want changes, but neither do they want to lose what they have already won".
Along with this, the Chilean leader reiterated the risk that Chile is running in the face of climate change and the challenges facing the world in general, where the survival of democracies is at stake, a problem for which he blamed the "large industrialised countries".