Ukraine's great cyberwar that did not happen

La gran ciberguerra de Ucrania que no ocurrió

This document is a copy of the original published by the Spanish Institute for Strategic Studies at the following link. 


International society is currently grappling with a hybrid conflict in Ukraine, where traditional and cyber weapons are being used in tandem. The big surprise of the Russian invasion has been the apparent absence of a major cyber war. Russia was supposed to first launch an all-out cyberattack that would cripple Ukraine and set the stage for the physical assault that followed. But this did not happen.

This article explains why Russia has not used the powerful cyber tools it apparently possesses in pursuit of strategic or tactical advantages in Ukraine. Furthermore, it shows how the Ukrainian war may change the traditional parameters of international conflicts through the new configuration of hackers.


Russia's invasion of Ukraine has disrupted both the real world and the virtual world. However, this is nothing new, as the current war, as it is known, stems from the protracted Russian-Ukrainian conflict that began in 2014, also characterised by Russian cyberattacks on Ukrainian critical infrastructure. Noteworthy are the attack on Ukraine's electricity grid in December 2015, which resulted in a blackout of up to 6 hours for more than 230.000 households1; the paralysis of the Ukrainian Treasury in December 20162; and the NotPetya malware attack in 20173.

Over the past decade, Russia has increasingly assumed an assertive cyber posture, based on its willingness to conduct cyber operations on critical infrastructure systems, aiming to influence public discourse and create confusion. Moreover, Moscow has repeatedly demonstrated its willingness to employ offensive cyberattacks even in situations other than war, with the aim of affecting political and economic outcomes in other states4 and ensuring its victory5.

This article will first analyse the development of the current cyber warfare. Second, it will argue why Russia has changed its cyber strategy. Finally, the impact of the new hacker configuration on future conflicts will be presented.

Development of cyber warfare6 in Ukraine

Before Russia invaded Ukraine on 24 February, analysts, experts, and officials in several states believed that cyberattacks would play a key role in the war7. Specifically, on 22 February 2022, minutes after President Joe Biden announced new sanctions against Russian banks and elites, a senior FBI official called on US businesses and local governments to be mindful of the potential for ransomware attacks as the crisis between the Kremlin and Ukraine deepens8.

For almost a decade now, Ukraine has become Russia's main victim of cyberattacks aimed at the information systems of its state institutions and private companies9. Consequently, it was logical to think that the situation would repeat itself in 2022. In a way, it did happen. During the prelude to the Russian invasion, several cyberattacks against Ukraine were registered.

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The first cyberattack took place on January 14th and affected around 70 government websites, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Cabinet of Ministers and the Security and Defence Council. The hackers replaced the websites with text in Ukrainian, Polish and Russian, which read ‘be afraid and expect the worst’. Most of the sites were restored within hours of the attack11.

On February 15th, a major distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack12 took down the websites of the Ministry of Defence, the army and the two largest banks in Ukraine, PrivatBank and Oschadbank. The New York Times described it as ‘the biggest raid of its kind in the country's history’13.

On February 24th, an hour before the military invasion, another malicious activity took place, targeting the Viasat-owned KA-SAT satellite network, disrupting internet access in Ukraine and disabling thousands of German wind turbines that used Viasat for communication. Despite having a significant impact, analysts' expectations of a ‘major cyberattack’ on Ukrainian infrastructure were not met. One of the possible explanations is that two days before the attack the European Union had deployed a cyber rapid response team (called CERT-EU), composed of several cyber security experts14.

According to ESET's report, the various malware used so far - HermeticWiper, IsaacWiper and CaddyWiper - were targeted at specific (non-)governmental organisations with the aim of affecting their ability to respond adequately to the invasion. ESET identified victims in the financial, government, and media sectors, attributing both HermeticWiper and CaddyWiper to Sandworm15, a group identified by the US as part of the Russian military intelligence agency GRU.

In addition, on 25 February, organisations and companies such as ESET and Vectra AI considered the possibility of a ‘total cyber war’ between Russia and the West, because of the unprecedented spate of coordinated cyberattacks in Ukraine prior to the invasion16. At the time, cyberattacks had become the weapon of the first attack.

A report17 published by Microsoft in April 2022 shows that most cyberattacks were timed to coincide with incoming missile or ground attacks. The report highlights considerable subtlety in the first weeks of the war, when bombings and troop movements were obvious, but cyber operations were less visible and harder to attribute, at least immediately, to Russian intelligence agencies. In addition, the company concluded that Russia began preparing for Ukrainian cyberattacks in March 2021, at the same time it began deploying troops along its border with Ukraine. The preparatory cyberattacks appear to have been aimed at gathering military and foreign policy intelligence18 and gaining access to critical infrastructure (especially energy service providers), with the goal of supporting Russian government decision-making and maintaining continuous preparedness of the cyber environment for future contingencies.

In the latest June 2022 report19, analysts came to two conclusions. On the one hand, two- thirds of Russian cyberattacks launched against Ukraine failed in the first months of the Ukrainian war. Ukraine appears to be well prepared to defend itself against cyberattacks, thanks in part to the work of companies such as Microsoft and Google in moving much of Ukraine's most important systems and databases to the cloud, to servers outside Ukraine. On the other hand, Moscow's disinformation campaign to establish a pro-Russian war narrative is working better than expected. Russia is using disinformation to psychologically manipulate Ukrainian society and reinforce the legitimisation of its invasion. This strategy is well known: Russian military doctrine itself20 states that information and psychological warfare will largely lay the foundation for victory in the war.

Russia's strategic shift in cyberspace

Based on the above, Russia has not used cyber strategy in the way it was thought it would, any more than the Cyber Pearl Harbor21 warned about for years. As of February 24th, cyberattacks against Ukrainian systems have been far less damaging than they could have been. According to ESET's report, the two most relevant attacks have been the CaddyWiper malware attack on March 14th and the Industroyer2 attack on April 8th, both of which were quickly mitigated by the ESET - CERT-EU collaboration.

Thus, Ukraine's critical infrastructure, such as the communications system, energy systems and healthcare systems have suffered more from direct military attacks than from cyberattacks. This is very surprising since, when Russian forces invaded Crimea in 2014, they had already shut down Crimea's telecommunications infrastructure, disabled most Ukrainian websites and blocked the mobile phones of several Ukrainian officials22.

There are three main arguments for Russia's strategic shift in cyberspace.

First, according to Lauren Zabierek23, the main reason is that Russia wanted to avoid an escalation of tensions with third states or spillover effects beyond Ukraine24. Specifically, it has tried to prevent a spillover effect from cyberattacks that could trigger a cyberwar with the West. No state has an interest in provoking a global cyber war, not even Russia - especially in a context in which its economy is severely weakened. It is also very likely that the war has created a kind of détente, where both sides understand that catastrophic cyberattacks will result in the mutually assured destruction of their critical infrastructures.

Moreover, Putin's intention has been to avoid invoking article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty25 especially after the organisation updated its Strategic Concept at the Madrid Summit in June 2022. If the previous version26 from 2010 briefly stated the rise of cyberattacks against the West, the new document27 directly accuses Russia of using malicious cyber operations as well as a disinformation strategy against the Allies to ‘establish spheres of influence’ and ‘pursue its political objectives of undermining the international order’. Russia also becomes the most significant and direct threat to the Alliance.

The second argument is that since cyber operations did not provide Russia with an operational advantage in 2014, so Moscow prioritised military rather than cyber actions28. Cyberattacks are not yet effective as tools of coercion in warfare, as they have so far failed to have a discernible effect on violence in the physical world29. Although increasingly common, cyber operations in wartime are not as useful as bombs and missiles when the objective is to inflict physical and psychological damage on the enemy. Simply put, an explosive payload causes more long-term damage than a malicious piece of software.

Likewise, cyberwarfare cannot replace traditional forms of warfare. States will not use cyberwarfare in place of traditional warfare, but they will increasingly rely on cyberspace as a domain in which to pursue new information objectives30.

Finally, there is the third and most plausible argument - states' desire to increase their cyber-defence capabilities has become more important in recent years. Ukraine is the best example. Over the past eight years, Ukraine has survived massive Russian attacks on its critical infrastructure, as well as a wave of destructive malware - NotPetya - and these lessons have been vital for the Ukrainian government, which has strengthened its resilience and response capacity. In the current context, Ukraine's cyber defences were augmented by foreign assistance31. As a result, Ukraine continues to maintain a high level of operability and connectivity, thanks, in particular, to the massive investment32 to establish a satellite internet service in the country, operated by SpaceX.

However, some experts suggest that Russia may be keeping its most aggressive cyber weapons in reserve. If the ground war stalls and financial sanctions hit it too hard, Moscow will increase cyberattacks towards Ukraine, or could even target international companies and financial markets33. In this regard, it is worth noting that although most of Russia's cyber activity has focused on Ukraine, Microsoft has detected 128 network intrusions in 42 countries34. Thus, Ukraine is not the only state to have been the victim of cyber-attacks since the beginning of the war. Intrusions have been detected in Spain35, Germany36, and the United Kingdom37, among others.

Hackers at war

One of the most interesting components of the Russian-Ukrainian cyber war is that states are not the only actors, but that each side is supported by various cyber groups. Ukraine received support from hacker groups such as Anonymous, Ghostsec, or the Belarusian Cyberpartisans, while on the Russian side are the Conti, Free Civilian and Killnet groups, among others.

In addition, Ukraine pursued a unique cyber strategy in the conflict: on 26 February the government announced the creation of a "volunteer cyber army" to protect Ukraine's critical infrastructure, conduct cyber espionage missions against Russian troops, as well as attack Russian military targets. So far, hacktivists managed to delete many CIS files, rename hundreds of folders to ‘putin_stop_this_war’ and expose email addresses and administrative credentials of members of the Russian government. In addition, out of 100 Russian databases that were analysed, 92 had been compromised by hackers38. Yurii Shchyhol, head of Ukraine's State Service for Special Communications and Information Protection acknowledged the importance of the hacktivists' work: by providing information to government institutions on how to properly defend critical infrastructure, none of the cyberattacks allowed the enemy to destroy any databases or cause a leak of private data39. However, these groups should be cautious, as aiming at the wrong target or conducting a disproportionate operation can create additional tension.

The establishment of hacker groups on both fronts led Clarke40 to determine that the war in Ukraine is changing cyber groups' decision-making in terms of recruitment. Prior to the war, cyber mercenaries were configured as apolitical groups, often motivated by money, disruption of critical infrastructure, or some vague affiliation with a cause. However, the current context is different. If these groups were previously driven by the proceeds of ransom payments, they are now being deployed in armed conflict for the sake of their country or a country with which they feel solidarity. Previous rules among hacker groups in the region are eroding, dividing the groups along conflict lines41. In short, hackers are pitting themselves against each other in support of or against Russia. As cyberattacks and conflict continue, these deepening divisions on the two fronts are a defining change for future conflicts.

On the Russian front, the fragmentation of groups42 and the lack of agreed standards in the future mean that recruitment modalities will change. Instead of accepting someone with cyber expertise to carry out attacks, these groups might begin to require a certain ‘political loyalty’ to be maintained for admission.

The motivation for cyber-attacks is also changing – it is no longer only intellectual or economic, but also political, so that the consequences are no longer focused solely on economic loss, but on conflicts between states, which also demonstrate and measure their strength in cyberspace.

On the Ukrainian front, the government has expressed its support for the volunteer cyber army but has also made it clear that it is not working in unison with them43. This is the first time in Ukrainian history, and probably in world history, when nearly 300,000 volunteer cyber professionals are coordinating their efforts to plan and execute any attack on Russian cyber infrastructure without state backing. They do it on their own. While the Ukrainian government may express concerns or objections to certain ‘tasks’ of the group, there is nothing to prevent the group from carrying out an attack without its approval or for the group's offshoots to act outside of the established targets.


Russia has traditionally been very active in cyberspace, which is why one of the most widely held beliefs among experts is that its cyber capabilities are very extensive. In practice, however, there has been a gap between how states and doctrine thought Russia would act in the cyber war against Ukraine and what has actually happened.
The combination of kinetic attacks with cyberattacks in hybrid warfare generally seeks to overwhelm enemy decision-making; create social unrest and polarisation; or paralyse critical infrastructure such as government services, energy, finance, and transportation. Russia has not achieved any of these objectives so far.

Moreover, Russia's cyber strategy has not been at all effective compared to the one used for the annexation of Crimea in 2014. This is mainly because Ukraine's defensive cyber capabilities are not the same as they were eight years ago, as well as the support of several states, companies such as Microsoft and Google, and, above all, hackers such as Anonymous or the volunteer cyber army.

The great novelty of the war is the new role of non-state actors – for the first time in history, anyone can join the war. If, in the future, hacking groups demonstrate that they do not need state support to operate, the real ability of a state to control malicious activity on its territory will become increasingly limited. Even in the absence of conflict, external hacking groups could begin to form for purely political reasons. This implies that, in future conflicts, it may be states themselves that will need external actors to support their cyber activities against their adversary.

While the Cyber Pearl Harbor that was expected to be seen in the first major clash between advanced industrial states in the 21st century has not happened, this may be changing. Uncertainty about Russia's duration and destructive capabilities will continue to change the dynamics of the conflict and could alter the way the cyber component of the conflict is currently playing out. While the 'total' cyber war of this conflict has not emerged, its impact on different areas of cyber security will be felt in future conflicts.

Already since the start of the war, numerous states have reported an increase in Russian cyber-attacks on their infrastructure.

It is therefore absolutely necessary for international peace and security that the West prioritise a coherent cyberdefence strategy and increase investment in defensive (and perhaps offensive) cyber capabilities in order to respond adequately to threats from cyberspace.

Although the cyberwar in Ukraine did not occur as expected, it has played an important role from the outset, marking the existence of two challenges for international society. On the one hand, to understand under what circumstances cyberwarfare might or might not occur in future conflicts; and on the other hand, faced with the challenge of the new hacktivists, to determine to what extent states remain the only actors that control cyberspace.

Political Anda Gavrila

Scientist from the University of Granada Delegation of the Junta de Andalucía in Brussels

1 Cfr. COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS. «Compromise of a power grid in eastern Ukraine». Diciembre de 2015. Disponible en:
2 El ciberataque detuvo los sistemas de la Tesorería durante varios días, por lo que los trabajadores estatales y los jubilados no pudieron recibir sus pagos (ZINETS, Natalia. «Ukraine hit by 6,500 hack attacks, sees Russian “cyberwar”». Reuters, 29 de diciembre de 2016. Disponible en:
3 Este ciberataque infectó una decena de sitios web de organizaciones ucranianas —incluidos bancos, ministerios, periódicos y empresas de electricidad— y se extendió a posteriori a varios Estados occidentales, como Alemania, Francia, Estados Unidos o el Reino Unido (HERN, Alex. «WannaCry, Petya, NotPetya: how ransomware hit the big time in 2017», The Guardian. 30 de diciembre de 2017. Disponible en:
4 El ejemplo más relevante es la intromisión en las elecciones presidenciales de EE. UU. en 2016, cuando los ataques cibernéticos rusos contribuyeron a generar una atmósfera de desconfianza, polarización y fragmentación social. Este ataque cibernético no solo perjudicó las posibilidades de las víctimas de ganar las elecciones, sino que contribuyó a la ya declinante fe de los estadounidenses en las instituciones democráticas.
5 ORENSTEIN, Mitchell. «Russia’s use of cyberattacks: Lessons from the Second Ukraine War». Foreign Policy Research Institute, 7 de junio de 2022. Disponible en: use-of-cyberattacks-lessons-from-the-second-ukraine-war/
6 La expresión guerra cibernética se refiere al uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) para interrumpir las actividades de un Estado u organización con fines estratégicos o militares y causar daños comparables a los de la guerra real (SINGER, Peter W. y FRIEDMAN, Allan. Cybersecurity and cyberwar: What everyone needs to know. Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 20-22. Disponible en:
7 MILLER, Christina. «Throwback attack: Russia breaches Wolf Creek Nuclear Power facility», Industrial Cybersecurity    Pulse.    24    de    febrero    de    2022.    Disponible    en: nuclear-power-facility/
8 LYNGAAS, Sean. «US officials tell businesses to watch for potential ransomware attacks after Biden announces Russia sanctions». CNN, 22 de febrero de 2022. Disponible en:
9  En 2016 Ucrania sufrió  el primer ataque de malware diseñado específicamente para atacar una infraestructura eléctrica (PAKHARENKO, Glib. «Cyber Operations at Maidan: A First-Hand Account», en GEERS, Keneth [ed.], Cyber war in perspective: Russian aggression against Ukraine. CCDCOE, 2015, pp. 60-65.    Disponible    en: arinPerspective_full_book.pdf).
10 POLITYUK, Pavel y HOLLAND, Steve. «Cyberattack hits Ukraine as U.S. warns Russia could be prepping for war». Reuters, 2020. Disponible en: ukraine-hit-by-cyberattack-russia-moves-more-troops-2022-01-14/
11 Se define como el ataque a un sistema de computadoras o a una red con el objetivo de que un servicio o recurso sea inaccesible para sus usuarios legítimos.
12 KRAMER, Andrew E. «Hackers Bring Down Government Sites in Ukraine», The New York Times. 28 de abril de 2022. Disponible en: government-sites.html
13 TIDY, Joe. «Ukraine: EU deploys cyber rapid-response team». BBC News, 22 de febrero de 2022. Disponible en:
14 Si bien algunos especularon que Sandworm podía ser un grupo que trabajaba desde Rusia, hasta 2020 el Departamento de Justicia de los EE. UU no lo identificó efectivamente como la Unidad Militar 74455 de la Dirección Principal de Inteligencia de Rusia. Se cree que fue responsable de los ataques DDoS de 2008 en Georgia y de la interrupción de la red eléctrica de Ucrania en 2015 (cfr. COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS. «Sandworm». Disponible en:
15 VECTRA AI. «As the War in Ukraine Spirals, Vectra AI Announces Free Cybersecurity Services». 28 de febrero de 2022. Disponible en: announces-free-cybersecurity-services
16 BURT, Tom. «The hybrid war in Ukraine». Microsoft, 27 de abril de 2022. Disponible en:
17 Tal y como ha sucedido en otros conflictos en los cuales Rusia ha estado involucrada, como Georgia (2008) y Siria (desde 2011 hasta la actualidad).
18 MICROSOFT. Defending Ukraine: Early Lessons from the Cyber War. 22 de junio de 2022. Disponible en
19 MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS. Doctrine of Information Security of the Russian Federation.
Diciembre de 2016. Disponible en:
20 Durante años los expertos han advertido que la próxima guerra se librará en el ciberespacio. Un Pearl Harbor cibernético derretiría los sistemas gubernamentales, paralizaría la infraestructura crítica y hundiría a las fuerzas armadas y las sociedades modernas en la oscuridad (ROHOZINSKI, Rafal. «The missing “cybergeddon”: What Ukraine can tell us about the future of cyber war». International Institute for Strategic Studies, 9 de marzo de 2022. Disponible en: cybergeddon-what-ukraine-can-tell-us-about-the-future-of-cyber-war).
21 EUROPEAN UNION EXTERNAL ACTION. «Eight Years On, War in Ukraine Brings Back Painful Memories    of    Crimea’s    Invasion».    18    de    marzo    de    2022.    Disponible    en: crimea%E2%80%99s-invasion_en
22 Experta en ciberseguridad y directora ejecutiva del Cyber Project de la Escuela Harvard Kennedy.
23 Cfr. GIBNEY, Elizabeth. «Where is Russia’s cyberwar? Researchers decipher its strategy», Nature. 17 de marzo de 2022. Disponible en:
24 Cfr. CUBEIRO CABELLO, Enrique. «El ciberespacio en la guerra de Ucrania» (Documento de Opinión,
n.o    32).    IEEE,    2022.    Disponible    en:
25 OTAN. Strategic Concept for the Defence and Security of the Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.    Lisboa,    19-20    de    noviembre    de    2010.    Disponible    en: eng.pdf
26 OTAN. NATO 2022 Strategic Concept. Madrid, 29 de junio de 2022. Disponible en
27 ISHAK, Natasha. «Is Russia holding back from cyberwar?», Vox. 19 de marzo de 2022. Disponible en:
28 KOSTIUK, Nadiya y ZHÚKOV, Yuri M. «Invisible Digital Front: Can Cyber Attacks Shape Battlefield Events?», Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 62, n.o 2. Febrero de 2019 (primera publicación en 2017). Disponible    en: 002717737138
29 La guerra cibernética tiene que ver ante todo con la información, con su control y utilización como medio para lograr objetivos políticos. Al ser principalmente un dominio informativo, el ciberespacio es más útil para perseguir objetivos informativos y manipular psicológicamente a la sociedad que se desea atacar que para ganar una guerra (KOSTYUK, Nadiya y GARTZKE, Erik. «Why Cyber Dogs Have Yet to Bark Loudly in Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine», Texas National Security Review, vol. 5, n.o 3. Verano de 2022. Disponible en:
30 Para Cubeiro Cabello la actuación de los Estados, en concreto de EE. UU, ha sido clave (cfr. CUBEIRO CABELLO, Enrique. Op. cit.). El Mando de Ciberdefensa (US CYBERCOM) y la Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional han reducido considerablemente las vulnerabilidades de los servicios esenciales e infraestructuras críticas ucranianas, fortaleciendo su capacidad para prevenir y mitigar los ataques cibernéticos.
31 Según varias fuentes, el Gobierno estadounidense ha gastado alrededor de 800.000 dólares en el establecimiento del servicio y ha entregado más de cinco mil terminales al Gobierno ucraniano (COLLIER, Kevin. «Starlink internet becomes a lifeline for Ukrainians». NBC News, 2022. Disponible en: rcna25360).
32 GIBNEY, Elizabeth. Op. cit.
33 Cfr. MICROSOFT. Op. cit.
34 A partir de la invasión, el envío de correos electrónicos peligrosos por parte de grupos rusos a los principales medios de comunicación españoles de prensa, radio y televisión ha aumentado un 3000 por ciento y ha alcanzado picos de más del 4000 por ciento desde el pasado 1 de marzo (AGUIRREGOMEZCORTA, Marta. «El otro campo de batalla: se intensifican los ciberataques rusos a las empresas españolas», Nius. 4 de marzo de 2022. Disponible en: tecnologia/tecnologia/otra-guerra-ciberataques-rusos-alcanzan-empresas- espanolas_18_3292022292.html).
35 En mayo de 2022, Killnet, un grupo de piratas informáticos prorrusos, dejó fuera de servicio las páginas web del Ministerio de Defensa alemán, el Parlamento, la Policía Federal y varias autoridades policiales locales (GEBAUER, Matthias et al. «Putin-Fans attackieren deutsche Behördenseiten», Der Spiegel. 6 de mayo de 2022. Disponible en: putin-fans-attackieren-deutsche-behoerdenseiten-a-2be17f20-3688-4674-b82d-d7889a532c80).
36 Una de cada tres empresas británicas avisaba a finales de marzo de que estaba experimentando ciberinfracciones o ciberataques al menos una vez a la semana (DEPARTMENT FOR DIGITAL, CULTURE, MEDIA AND SPORT y LOPEZ MP, Julia. «Businesses urged to boost cyber standards as new data reveals nearly a third of firms suffering cyber attacks hit every week». UK Government, 30 de marzo de 2022. Disponible en: standards-asnew-data-reveals-nearly-a-third-of-firms-suffering-cyber-attacks-hit-every-we
37 DELCKER, Janosch. «Ukraine’s IT army: Who are the cyber guerrillas hacking Russia?», Deutsche Welle. 24 de marzo 2022. Disponible en: guerrillas-hacking-russia/a-61247527
38 ROSEN, Kenneth R. «The Man at the Center of the New Cyber World War», Politico. 14 de julio de 2022. Disponible en: cybersecurity-00045486
39 CLARKE, Aaron. «Hacking the Invasion: The Cyber Implications of Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine», Third Way. 7 de junio de 2022. Disponible en: implications-of-russias-invasion-of-ukraine.pdf
40 ACCENTURE. Global Incident Report: Threat Actors Divide along Ideological Lines over the Russia- Ukraine    Conflict    on    Underground    Forums.    2022.    Disponible    en:    https://acn-marketing- Divide-Blog-14MARCH22.pdf
41 El ejemplo más relevante se produjo el 19 de mayo de 2022, cuando el grupo cibernético prorruso Conti anunció el fin de sus operaciones tras eliminar oficialmente su infraestructura de ataques y dividir sus actividades cibernéticas maliciosas entre grupos más pequeños.
42 GILL, Jaspreet. «Why Ukraine recruiting amateur “IT army” could backfire», Breaking Defense. 2 de marzo de 2022. Disponible en: army-could-backfire/ 

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